Public Patent

Non-browning apple cultivar named 'SJCA38R6A74'


A new and distinct apple tree cultivar named `SJCA38R6A74` is primarily adapted to the growing conditions of Northern Eastern Central Canada. The fruit of `SJCA38R6A74`, which hangs well on tree, is a dessert apple having very good firmness, crispness and flavor, high quality flesh and a long shelf life. The phenol (oxidative agent) content of this cultivar's fruit is significantly lower than that of other known cultivars, including Cortland which is the most popular apple variety for transformation. No browning of the fruit occurs after cutting (even after 4-5 days at room temperature), without adding any chemical, which makes it an excellent candidate for fresh fruit slice, fruit salad, dried apple chips and processing juice, cider).


1. A new and distinct apple cultivar named `SJCA38R6A74`, substantially as described and illustrated herein.



[0001] None.


[0002] This application claims priority under 35 USC 119(f) of Plant Breeder's Rights application No. 04-4344 filed Sep. 8, 2004 in Canada.


[0003] None.


[0004] The present invention relates to a new and distinct apple cultivar designated as `SJCA38R6A74`. This cultivar belongs to the genus Malus.times.domestica.


[0005] The new cultivar `SJCA38R6A74`, also tested as A38R6A38, originated from a cross between `Linda` and NY44428-5 (Jonamac), made at Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada (MFC), within the Horticultural Research and Development Center (HRDC) fruit breeding program (FIG. 1). `SJCA38R6A74` was asexually reproduced by grafting on selected rootstocks in L'Acadie and Frelighsburg substations of AAFC in Quebec, and has been under evaluation since 1985 in replicated trials.

[0006] The fruit, leave and tree morphology of `SJCA38R6A74` were stable during the evaluation period in Quebec (Frelighsburg and Acadie). `SJCA38R6A74` is now an established and stable cultivar.

[0007] `SJCA38R6A74` is similar to its parents in terms of fruit size, tree vigor and harvest date. However, `SJCA38R6A74` is distinguishable from its parents in several respects e.g. fruit over, blush and ground color, fruit shape, tree growing habit which is spreading drooping, in opposition with Linda (upright) and Jonamac (upright spreading). Furthermore, the fruits of `SJCA38R6A74` are persistent and do not fall at maturity even after freezing at C. in February (FIG. 7), contrary to its parents, of which some fruits drop at maturity and do not stay on tree after freezing.


[0008] `SJCA38R6A74` is adapted to the Northern climate and growing conditions similar to those of Frelighsburg and L'Acadie, Quebec.

[0009] `SJCA38R6A74` is a dessert apple (domestica Borkh.) type with improved firmness, crispness, high quality flesh and much longer shelf life than McIntosh and Cortland. The fruit flavor is pronounced and the fruits hang well on tree. The flesh is juicy, firm, crisp and resistant to bruising. The phenol (oxidative agent) content of the fruit is significantly less than the other known cultivars, even of Cortland which is the most popular apple variety for transformation and production of apple chips and fruit salad. No browning of the fruit occurs after cutting (even after 4-5 days at room temperature), without adding any chemical, which makes it an excellent candidate for fresh fruit slice, fruit salad, dried apple chips and processing Ouice, cider).


[0010] The accompanying color photographs show typical specimens of the new variety at various stages of development as nearly true as it is possible to make in color reproductions.

[0011] FIG. 1 schematically shows the pedigree of `SJCA38R6A74`;

[0012] FIG. 2 shows trees of `SJCA38R6A74` selection;

[0013] FIG. 3 shows the flowers of `SJCA38R6A74`;

[0014] FIG. 4 shows the fruit of `SJCA38R6A74`;

[0015] FIG. 5 shows the `SJCA38R6A74` susceptibility to browning, 4 days after cutting at room temperature, as compared to other selected lines from MFC (`SJC649`, `SJC658`, `SJC7123-2`) and to some industry standard cultivars (`Gala`, `Galarina`, `McIntosh Summerland`, `Reinette Russet`, `Spartan` and `Cortland`).

[0016] FIG. 6 shows bruising of the `SJCA38R6A74` fruit after dropping; and

[0017] FIG. 7 shows the persistence of `SJCA38R6A74` fruit on tree at maturity (photo taken on Dec. 15, 2004).


[0018] The following is a detailed description of `SJCA38R6A74`, a new and distinct cultivar of Malus domestica. It is based on observations made during several growing seasons, from 1999 to 2004, in 2 substations of Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada (MFC) in Quebec, namely L'Acadie and Frelighsburg and an apple orchard located in Mont Saint-Gregoire, Quebec. The colors are described using The Royal Horticultural Society (RHS) Colour Chart.

Tree characteristics

[0019] Tree: [0020] Vigor.--Antermediate. [0021] Branching habit (natural habit of an untrained, non-juvenile tree).--Spreading drooping. [0022] Angle of bearing branches (with trunk).--80-1200. [0023] Predominance of bearing (major fruit load).--Both spur and shoots.

Shoot characteristics

[0024] Dormant one-year old shoot: [0025] Pubescence (on upper half).--Medium. [0026] Shine of bark.--Medium. [0027] Thickness (mm) (diameter at center of middle intemode).--Mean 3.3. [0028] Flexibility.--Medium to strong. [0029] Length of internode (mm) (at middle third of shoot).--Mean 24.7. [0030] Number of lenticels.--Few to Medium. [0031] Size of lenticels.--Small to Medium. [0032] Predominant colour (on sunny side).--Reddish-brown. [0033] Size of lateral bud.--Large. [0034] Shape of bud tip.--Pointed. [0035] Position of bud relative to axis.--Adpressed. [0036] Size of bud support.--Small.

Leaf characteristics

[0036] [0037] Shoot tip: [0038] Color of growing tip.--White. [0039] Shape of leaves in cross section (leaves with petioles originating within 2 cm of the apical meristem).--Concave to concave straight. [0040] Pubescence of upper side of leaves (leaves with petioles originating within 2 cm of the apical meristem).--Very weak to weak. [0041] Coloration of lower side of leaves (leaves with petioles originating within 2 cm of the apical meristem).--Green. [0042] Distribution of color other that green (leaves with petioles originating within 2 cm of the apical meristem).--None. [0043] Leaf: [0044] Lobes.--Absent. [0045] Size.--Medium to Medium large. [0046] Shape.--Oblong to slightly obovate. [0047] Orientation.--Upwards outwards to Outwards. [0048] Length (measure of to fully expanded leaf).--Mean 8.9. [0049] Width (measure of to fully expanded leaf).--Mean 4.7. [0050] Ratio length/width of the blade (from to fully expanded leaf).--1.9. [0051] Shape of apex.--Mainly Acuminate with few Cuspidate. [0052] Shape of base.--Cuneate to obtuse. [0053] Indentation of margin.--Mainly serrate. [0054] Glossiness of upper side.--Weak to medium. [0055] Pubescence on lower side.--Nearly pubescent. [0056] Anthocyanin coloration of veins.--Weak. [0057] Color of upper side.--Dark green. [0058] Intensity of anthocyanin coloration (of upper side).--None. [0059] Length of petiole.--3 to 6 cm. [0060] Size of stipule.--Small when present.

Flower characteristics

[0060] [0061] Flowers: [0062] Time of bud burst.--Medium. [0063] Calendar date of bud burst (silver tip).--Apr., 2004. [0064] Time of beginning of flowering (10% open flowers).--May 14, 2004. (5 days before Mcintosh in Freligsburg). [0065] Unopened flower.--color of bud in full balloon stage (second or third flower bud when terminal flower is opening) -- Medium pink (63A). [0066] Unopened flower.--color of bud (RHS color chart number) -- 58A. [0067] Color of pedicel.--Green (opened flower); Red (unopened flower). [0068] Type of flower.--Single. [0069] Size of flower (cm) (diameter when petals pressed in horizontal position).--Mean 4.2. [0070] Shape of petal.--Ovate. [0071] Position of margins of petal.--Touching to Overlapping. [0072] Color of upper side of petal (RHS color chart number) -- Mainly white with a slight blush of 58A at fully open stage. [0073] Color of lower side of petal (RHS color chart number) -- Mainly white with irregular patterns of 58B at fully open stage.

Fruit characteristics

[0073] [0074] Fruit: [0075] Size (diameter).--Medium to large (6 to 8 cm). [0076] Shape.--Globose, Flat globose (oblate) and sometimes Lopsided. [0077] Symmetry in side view.--Symmetric, and sometimes irregular (Lopsided). [0078] Ribbing.--Present. [0079] Prominence of ribbing.--Very weak. [0080] Crowning at distal end.--Present. [0081] Degree of crowning at distal end.--eak. [0082] Aperture of eye.--Closed to half open. [0083] Size of eye.--Small to Medium. [0084] Persistence of calyx (in mature fruit).--Present. [0085] Length of sepal.--Medium. [0086] Spacing of sepals at base.--Free to Touching. [0087] Depth of eye basin.--Shallow to Shallow medium. [0088] Width of eye basin.--Medium to Medium broad (3 cm). [0089] Thickness of stalk.--Thin to Medium (2.2 mm). [0090] Length of stalk.--Long (2.4 cm). [0091] Depth of stalk cavity.--Medium to Deep. [0092] Width of stalk cavity.--Medium to Medium broad (3.5 cm). [0093] Relief of surface.--Smooth. [0094] Bloom of skin.--7 on a scale of 1 to 9. [0095] Waxiness of skin.--3 on a scale of 1 to 9. [0096] Translucency of skin.--Absent. [0097] Thickness of skin.--Medium to thick. [0098] Ground color of skin (fully mature fruit).--Green-yellow. [0099] Amount of over color of skin.--High to Very high. [0100] Over color of skin.--Dark red (RHS 185A). [0101] Type of over color of skin.--Washed out (faded) and Solid. [0102] Amount of russet.--Absent or very low. [0103] Position of russet.--None. [0104] Number of lenticels.--Low near the stem but very high near basin. [0105] Size of lenticels.--Small to Medium. [0106] Prominence of lenticels (in contrast with skin).--Intermediate prominence to prominent. [0107] Color of flesh.--White. [0108] Distinctness of core line (median through locules) in cross-section.--Absent or very weak. [0109] Aperture of locules in cross-section.--Closed. [0110] Setting (yield efficiency).--2.6 kg/cm.sup.2 in 2004. [0111] Maturity date.--Medium. [0112] Seed color (at maturity).--Brown to Dark brown. [0113] Seed shape (at maturity).--Long conic. [0114] Fruit quality: [0115] Cracking tendency of skin/stem cavity.--30% of samples were split at the stem cavity. [0116] Browning of flesh (one hour after being cut with stainless steel knife).--Absent or very weak. [0117] Firmness of flesh (without skin -- measurement with penetrometer).--64 Newtons (Average of 10 fruits taken at two sides for a total of 20 measurements). [0118] Texture of flesh (when ripe).--Fine. [0119] Grittiness.--Absent. [0120] Juiciness.--Medium to Juicy. [0121] Percentage of malic acid in fruit juice.--Medium (0.5-0.9%) to High (1.0-1.6%). [0122] Percentage of total sugars in fruit juice.--Medium (11.5-13.4%). [0123] Flavor.--Very aromatic, sweet and acidic at optimum maturity (around October 7, in Frelighsburg, QC).

[0124] Chemical analysis of the `SJCA38R6A74` fruits reveal low levels of phenols, as compared to well-known varieties, as shown in Table 1 below. In particular, This confers to the fruit its "no-browning" characteristic several hours after being cut with a stainless steel knife, until completely dried at room temperature. TABLE-US-00001 TABLE 1 Antioxidant composition, simple phenols and procyanidins of selected advanced apple lines compared to selected standard cultivars Simple Phenols Total P-cou- Total Phenoic Chlo- Neochlo- maryl- simple Advanced Index rogenic rogenic quinic pheno- lines & (TPI) acid acid acid lics Cultivar (.mu.g/mL) (ug/mL) (ug/mL) (ug/mL) (ug/mL) Gala 230.8cde 91.5c 1.4ef 12.8e 105.7c Galarina 228.9cde 29.5f 38.4b 1.3f 69.2d McIntosh 274.3bc 121.7b 3.0de 30.2b 155.0b Reinette 605.1a 208.1a 3.2cd 31.3b 242.6a Russet Spartan 238.0cd 95.1c 1.8def 11.2e 108.1c SJCA38R6A74 49.6g 12.6g 1.3ef 20.3d 34.2e Cortland 141.8f 43.8ed 1.8def 25.1c 70.7d LSD 49.0 12.3 1.7 4.2 15.8 Procyanidin Pro- Pro- cya- cya- Other nidin Cate- nidin Epi- Pro- Advanced B1 chin B2 cate- cya- Total lines & (ug/ (ug/ (ug/ chin nidins procya- Cultivar mL) mL) mL) (ug/mL) (ug/mL) nidins Gala 11.7e 5.7cd 41.6cd 42.8cd 9.3b 111.1de Galarina 16.5d 10.4bc 57.4b 55.3c 4.0cd 143.7cd McIntosh 9.7e 8.8c 42.0cd 35.9de 9.0b 105.4de Reinette 54.7a 38.4a 97.9a 95.4a 19.3a 305.8a Russet Spartan 0.0f 11.2bc 52.8bc 46.5cd 8.5bc 119.1cde SJCA38R6A74 0.0f 0.0d 0.0e 0.0g 0.0d 0.0g Cortland 0.0f 8.3cd 33.2d 20.1f 0.0d 61.7f LSD 2.1 8.7 12.4 14.6 5.0 38.6 Antioxidant composition, dihydrochalcones of selected advanced apple lines compared to selected standard cultivars Dihydrochalcones Advanced Total lines & Phloretin-3- Dihydro- Cultivar xyloglucoside Phloridzin chalcones Gala 7.9de 5.9cde 13.9cd Galarina 11.3bc 4.7de 16.0c McIntosh 7.7ef 6.1cd 13.9cd Reinette Russet 41.2a 15.6a 56.8a Spartan 4.4g 6.5c 10.8def SJCA38R6A74 10.9cd 5.3cde 15.3c Cortland 4.7g 4.7de 9.4g LSD 2.2 1.5 3.2

[0125] A letter appearing in association with more than one value in a column of Table 1, indicates that the values associated with that letter are not significantly different from each other i.e. they differ from less than the least significant difference (LSD) .

[0126] The fruit has a long shelf life. It keeps its firmness, juiciness and flavor at standard cold room for 4-5 months. Given all its advantageous characteristics, the `SJCA38R6A74` fruit is recommended for fresh eating, fruit salad and processing (dried apple chips).

Adaptation and resistance to diseases

[0127] `SJCA38R6A74` trees are hardy at Frelighsburg, Quebec (latitude, longitude, where the average winter minimum temperature is -25 .degree. C.. There has been no sign of powdery mildew (Podosphaera leucotricha (Ell. & Ev.) Salm.), fireblight (Erwinia amylovora (Burr.) Winslow et al.) or scab (Venturia inaequalis) infections on leaves during the evaluation period.

[0128] `SJCA38R6A74` fruits are susceptible to bitter pit, particularly if the season is dry and no irrigation is provided. The fruits are resistant to water core and the flesh does not turn brown after bruising (FIG. 6). As stated earlier, and contrary to `McIntosh`, the fruits of `SJCA38R6A74` do not drop at maturity and stay on the tree even at C. (FIG. 7), which makes it a good candidate for "Ice Cider" Production.

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